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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 42  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 82-87

New onset seizures: Etiology and co-relation of clinical features with computerized tomography and electroencephalography

Department of General Medicine, Vijayanagara Institute of Medical Sciences, Bellary, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
V Muralidhar
Department of General Medicine, Vijayanagara Institute of Medical Sciences, Bellary, Karnataka - 583 104
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-5009.157036

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Aims and Objective: To establish whether the reported episode was a seizure, to determine the cause of seizure by identifying the risk factors, lab, radiological and electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation to determine any underlying structural abnormality and to decide whether anti-epileptics therapy is essential. Settings and Design: This was a descriptive study. Materials and Methods: (1) Source of data - All the patients with inclusion criteria attending to the medicine outpatient department (OPD)/wards. Sample size = 50 cases. (2) Study subjects - Inclusion criteria: All patients >15 years age group presenting in medicine OPD/wards with the first episode of seizure. Exclusion criteria: Seizures on treatment and head injury. Methods of Collection of Data: Each patient was subjected to the detailed evaluation including history, precipitating factors, and symptomatology recorded accordingly. History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis (TB) was enquired into. Family history of epilepsy, TB was recorded. Complete clinical evaluation and thorough investigations-complete blood count, urine examination, blood urea nitrogen, random blood sugar, chest X-ray, computerized tomography (CT) scan and EEG were done for all patients in the inclusion criteria. Anti-epileptics were started if either CT/EEG was abnormal, rest of the patients were not given anti-epileptics. Follow-up was done for 6 months, and any recurrence of seizures was noted. The data collected from cases in the inclusion criteria were recorded in a Master chart. Data analysis was done using appropriate statistical tests and graphs. Results and Conclusions: Peak incidence of new onset seizure was second to third decade (25 cases; 50%), max cases <25 years, male: Female ratio of 2.12:1, duration of seizure <5 min (30 cases; 60%), evidence of TB = 6 cases (12%), alcohol intake = 5 cases (10%), developmental delay = 3 cases (6%), family history = 3 cases (6%), old cerebro-vascular accident = 2 cases (4%), neurological abnormalities (CT scan) =11 cases (22%), EEG abnormalities = 4 cases (8%), recurrence = 12 untreated cases (24%).

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