Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 44  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 86-89

Snoring habits among healthy persons attending a tertiary care center in Chittagong, Bangladesh: A questionnaire-based study


1 Department of Medicine, Chattagram Maa-O-Shishu Hospital Medical College, Chittagong, Bangladesh
2 Department of Medicine, Chittagong Medical College, Chittagong, Bangladesh

Date of Web Publication11-Oct-2017

Correspondence Address:
Rajat Sanker Roy Biswas
Department of Medicine, Chattagram Maa-O-Shishu Hospital Medical College, Agrabad, Chittagong
Bangladesh
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jss.JSS_12_17

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Introduction: Snoring is a common health condition which is unexplored in the context of Bangladesh. Hence, the objective of the present study is to find out the frequency of snoring among the healthy Bangladeshi people attending tertiary care center in Chittagong using a questionnaire. Methods: It was a single center, cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Internal Medicine of a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh among 119 apparently healthy adults who were the attendants of patients. A “Snore Survey” questionnaire adopted from an Indian study which was based on Berlin questionnaire was used. Results: With a 88.1% valid response rate, present study included 63 (52.94%) male and 56 (47.06%) female. Among all, 47.9% of (57) individuals were <30 years of age. Majority (82.4%) were recruited from urban locality. Frequency of snoring was 28 (23.5%) of total individuals. Nearly 33.3% of males and 12.5% of females were snorers. The frequency of snoring ranged from daily (25.0%) to monthly (28.6%) episodes. Some had very loud (25.0%) sound during sleep, and others had variable loudness. Male snorers were significantly taller, weighed more and had broader neck circumference than female (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Snoring is not an uncommon medical condition among healthy young people in Bangladesh. Considering the population of Bangladesh, the sample size is very small and a large scale study would certainly help create awareness among the patients as well as healthcare professionals about this neglected but very significant health problem.

Keywords: Frequency, neck circumference, snoring


How to cite this article:
Roy Biswas RS, Rahman MH. Snoring habits among healthy persons attending a tertiary care center in Chittagong, Bangladesh: A questionnaire-based study. J Sci Soc 2017;44:86-9

How to cite this URL:
Roy Biswas RS, Rahman MH. Snoring habits among healthy persons attending a tertiary care center in Chittagong, Bangladesh: A questionnaire-based study. J Sci Soc [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 22];44:86-9. Available from: http://www.jscisociety.com/text.asp?2017/44/2/86/216490


  Introduction Top


Snoring is regarded as a common condition nowadays. In the past, it was regarded as a social nuisance and was thought as a harmless matter for the victim, but now, it is a matter of medical importance and related with many adverse health consequences.

In earlier studies,[1],[2],[3] snoring was found 16%–89% in general populations and regarding gender variations, male had 50% and female had 24%–50% snoring problem. In a study [4] done in India, among 702 individuals of Lucknow, investigators found that the prevalence of snoring in men and women was 31.1%. Among them, 11.1% did not know whether they snore. The ratio of male-to-female snorers was 2.35:1, and 33.8% of men and 26% of women were snorers. Among them, 17.4% were loud snorer and 21.5% were having snoring frequency 3–4 times/week.

It is assumed that snoring is a common problem in Bangladesh, but sleep medicine and sleep-related problems do not receive due to attention as we are still burdened with different communicable diseases.

On that ground, a preliminary questionnaire-based study is designed to find out the frequency of snoring of Bangladeshi population. The study was conducted on a structured questionnaire as there is no “Gold Standard” for objective measurements of snoring. Worldwide, the literature is rich in studies related to sleep apnea in comparison to snoring, and in our country, the awareness about the individual of sleep is in its early stage. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study done in the past in Bangladesh on snoring in healthy volunteers. Hence, we undertook the present study.


  Methods Top


This study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh, among 135 healthy persons. During consultation with the patient, accompanying attendant was explained about the study, and after informed written consent from him/her, a structured questionnaire was introduced. Individuals were interviewed face to face using “snore survey” questionnaire adopted from the Berlin questionnaire 4 [Appendix 1 [Additional file 1]]. Detailed information regarding snoring such as snoring loudness, snoring frequency, bothersome snoring, and nonbothersome snoring were recorded along with age, sex, height, weight, and neck circumference. Respondents were invited to provide information about their snoring as per the questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed such a manner that would ensure participants can respond within a minimum period but such that essential information can be easily obtained. The data were analyzed by SPSS-20 software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA).


  Results Top


During the study 135 individuals were offered the structured questionnaire, among which 119 responded with a valid response rate of 88.1%. Among them, 63 (52.94%) were male and 56 (47.06%) were female with male-to-female ratio was 1.13:1. Majority of the individuals were <30 years of age (47.9%) followed by 39 in 30–40 years age group (32.8%). Among all, 82.4% of individuals were recruited from urban locality [Table 1]. Among 119 individuals, frequency of snoring was found in 28 (23.5%) individuals, and 7 (5.9%) individuals were not aware that they snore while sleeping. Nearly 33.3% of males and 12.5% of females were snorers. The frequency of snoring varied from daily to as less as once in a month Some had very loud (25.0%) and others had variable loudness [Table 2]. Regarding analysis of anthropometric variables, male snorers were significantly taller, weighed more and had broader neck circumference than their female counterpart (P< 0.05), whereas the difference in the body mass index was not significant among both gender (P > 0.05) [Table 3].
Table 1: Age distribution and locality of the study individuals

Click here to view
Table 2: Snoring characteristics of study individuals

Click here to view
Table 3: Gender variations of anthropometric parameters

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


During the study, 135 individuals were offered the questionnaire, among which 119 responded with a valid response rate of 88.1%. The male-to-female ratio was 1.13:1 in the present study. Majority of the individuals were <40 years, and most were recruited from urban locality. As Bangladesh is a country of rapidly growing population, attendants who were carrying their ailing family members to the hospital were younger as represented in this study. The study was conducted in an urban tertiary care center, so urban majority of respondents is expected.

In the present study, frequency of snoring among the individuals was 28 (23.5%). Among those, 7 (5.9%) were unaware about their snoring status. Snoring affected them on a daily basis or some had monthly distribution. There were some very loud (25.0%) snorers also. Snoring was found in 31.1% in a study conducted in India [4] performed on apparently healthy attendants. Another Indian study conducted by Udwadia et al.[5] found the prevalence of snoring of about 26% in middle-aged urban community.

In the present study, male snorers were 33.3% (21/63) and female were 12.5% (7/56). In an Indian study,[4] Prasad et al. found that 33.8% (153/452) of men and 26.0% (65/250) of women were snorers. In our study, male percentage corresponds but female was found less than their study. As our study patients were younger age group and women are shy to disclose their actual condition in a country like Bangladesh, low frequency of snoring among female may not represent the actual country scenario which is a limitation of the study. Second, the study population does not represent the actual scenario in the rural setup in Bangladesh.

A study done by Young et al.[6] found habitual snoring in 81% of women and nonhabitual snoring in 95% of females, and in males, the habitual snorers were 66%, and 83% were nonhabitual snorer. The very high rate of snoring in this study could be because of self-reporting.

Olson et al.[7] studied 441 individuals aged 35–69 years and found 56% of them were male snorer.

Ohayon et al.[8] conducted a telephone survey and compared young population of individuals >65 years age and found higher self-reporting of snoring in older people than younger individuals.

These observed differences in the prevalence of snoring depend on various facts. Complaints about snoring by one partner or family members influenced the individuals to positive answer during the introduction of questionnaire. Thus, it depends on the tolerance and their threshold of the partner to tolerate the sound of snoring. Hence, actual frequency or prevalence would be influenced on individual bias, and this is a limitation of all such types of studies including the present one.

In the present study, body weight, height, and neck circumferences were found significantly higher among the male than the female snorers. Body mass index was found uninfluenced in both sex in relation to snoring frequency. As the present study is done on a small sample size (n = 119), further large-scale study is needed to explore whether these anthropometric variables actually have any influence on snoring status and also to have a strong conclusion.


  Conclusion Top


Snoring is not an uncommon medical condition among healthy young people in Bangladesh. Considering the large population of Bangladesh, these data may be inadequate and it needs a large-scale study for the awareness among the patients as well as health professionals about this neglected but very significant health problem.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Ah-See KW, Stewart M, Banham SW, Robinson K, Carter R, Wilson JA. Systematic analysis of snoring in women. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1998;107:227-31.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.
Jones TM, Swift AC. Snoring: Recent developments. Hosp Med 2000;61:330-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.
Stoohs RA, Blum HC, Haselhorst M, Duchna HW, Guilleminault C, Dement WC. Normative data on snoring: A comparison between younger and older adults. Eur Respir J 1998;11:451-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.
Prasad R, Garg R, Verma RK, Agarwal SP, Ahuja RC. A study on snoring habits in healthy population of Lucknow. Indian J Sleep Med 2006;1:37-40.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Udwadia ZF, Doshi AV, Lonkar SG, Singh CI. Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing and sleep apnea in middle-aged urban Indian men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004;169:168-73.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Skatrud J, Weber S, Badr S. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-aged adults. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1230-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Olson LG, King MT, Hensley MJ, Saunders NA. A community study of snoring and sleep-disordered breathing. Prevalence. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152:711-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Ohayon MM, Guilleminault C, Priest RG, Caulet M. Snoring and breathing pauses during sleep: Telephone interview survey of a United Kingdom population sample. BMJ 1997;314:860-3.  Back to cited text no. 8
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed467    
    Printed8    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded72    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal