Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 44  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 134-136

Viral diarrhea in children: Time to start rapid diagnosis and vaccination


1 Senior Pediatric Consultant, Royal Hospital, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Tirunelveli Medical College, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication14-Feb-2018

Correspondence Address:
Poongodi Lakshmi Santhana Kumaraswamy
Department of Microbiology, Tirunelveli Medical College, Tirunelveli - 627 011, Tamil Nadu
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jss.JSS_29_17

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Background: Acute diarrheal diseases are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age throughout the world. This study was done to find out the incidence of rotavirus and adenovirus infection in children below 5 years of age. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 stool samples were collected from hospitalized children below 5 years of age with diarrhea from a private children hospital and tested for rotavirus and adenovirus antigen detection by rapid immunochromatography (RICT). Results: Of the 105 patients tested, 44 (42%) were positive for rotavirus, and two (2%) were positive for adenovirus by RICT. None of the children were positive for both rotavirus and adenovirus. Out of 105 children, only two had received rotavirus vaccine. They were negative for both rotavirus and adenovirus. Conclusion: The rotavirus vaccine can be included in the Universal Immunization Programme. Although the sensitivity and specificity of RICT were reported as 75% and 95% only, it is useful to detect viral diarrhea at the point of care for effective management and containment of diarrheal outbreaks at field level.

Keywords: Acute diarrheal diseases, adenovirus, antigen, rapid immunochromatography, rotavirus


How to cite this article:
Abdullah MU, Santhana Kumaraswamy PL, Ahamed Nagoor SI. Viral diarrhea in children: Time to start rapid diagnosis and vaccination. J Sci Soc 2017;44:134-6

How to cite this URL:
Abdullah MU, Santhana Kumaraswamy PL, Ahamed Nagoor SI. Viral diarrhea in children: Time to start rapid diagnosis and vaccination. J Sci Soc [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Jul 21];44:134-6. Available from: http://www.jscisociety.com/text.asp?2017/44/3/134/225502


  Introduction Top


Diarrheal diseases have been recognized in humans since antiquity. In India, despite effective antidiarrheal disease prevention program started in 1978, diarrhea still remains a major public health concern.[1] Acute diarrheal diseases are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age throughout the world.[2],[3],[4],[5] In poorer countries, it is a major cause of malnutrition.[6] Many diarrheal deaths are caused by dehydration. Until the early 1970s, bacterial, viral, or parasitic etiology of diarrheal disease in children could be detected in fewer than 30% of cases. Viruses such as rotavirus, human calicivirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus are recognized as important causes of this disease, particularly in children.[7],[8],[9] However, in developing countries, data on the prevalence of enteropathogenic viruses are sparse, since laborious and expensive virological testing is usually not performed. Early diagnosis is essential for effective management, identification of individuals who are the potential sources of infection to others and containment of outbreak.[10] In this background, this study was done to find out the incidence of rotavirus and adenovirus infection in the stool of children below 5 years of age.


  Materials and Methods Top


A total of 105 stool samples were collected from hospitalized children below 5 years of age with diarrhea from July 2016 to February 2017 at a private children hospital. All the samples were tested for rotavirus and adenovirus antigen detection by rapid immunochromatography – RICT (SD BIOLINE Rota/Adeno Rapid) Ethical clearance, filled in pro forma and informed consent from reliable informants was also obtained. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Statistical software IBM SPSS statistics 20 (International Business Machine, New York, USA) was used.


  Results Top


Of the 105 patients tested, 63 were males and the remaining 42 were females. Of the 63 males, 42 (67%) were <12 months, 15 (24%) were between 13 and 24 months, and the remaining 6 (10%) were between 25 and 60 months of age. Of the 42 females, 21 (50%) were <12 months, 17 (40%) were between 13 and 24 months, and the remaining four (10%) were 25 and 60 months of age. The mean age of males was 15.1 months, and the mean age of females was 15.5 months. Rotavirus positivity among male and female children was not statistically significant (P < 0.05) [Table 1].
Table 1: Distribution of rotavirus and adenovirus positivity in children

Click here to view


Of the 105 patients tested, 44 (42%) were positive for rotavirus, and two (2%) were positive for adenovirus by RICT. Out of 105 children, only two had received rotavirus vaccine. They were negative for both rotavirus and adenovirus. None of the children were positive for both rotavirus and adenovirus [Table 1].


  Discussion Top


Since rotavirus is difficult to cultivate in tissue culture, other methods such as rotavirus antigen detection by immunoassays have been developed.[11] Originally, electron microscopy was used which is labor intensive.[10] It is not available widely, costly and needs expertise to handle. Further, detection of rotavirus by electron microscopy requires more than 106 particles per ml of feces.[8]

Rotavirus is highly communicable, infected persons shed large quantities of virus in their stool.[12],[13] Although immune deficient persons may shed rotavirus for more than 30 days after infection, a true carrier state is not described. Rotavirus causes outbreaks in nurseries, hospitals, and schools because it is very stable and remains in the environment for weeks or months if not disinfected.[14] Vaccinated strains are shed in the feces of vaccinated infants, transmission of vaccine strain increases herd immunity in population with low vaccine coverage area. However, symptomatic infection by vaccine strain has also been documented.[15]

The incidence of rotavirus diarrhea was 42% by RICT in children below 5 years in the present study [Table 1]. Older children and adults are also infected but they generally suffer from subclinical infections.[13],[14]

The sensitivity and specificity of RICT were reported as 75% and 95%, respectively.[16] Hence, RICT has to be compared with the gold standard methods or molecular methods.

The incidence is similar among children in industrialized and developing countries. This signifies that improvement in hygiene and access to safe water alone may not significantly reduce the prevalence of rotavirus. Thus, vaccination offers one of the promising methods to reduce the prevalence. However, as the immunity is type specific and there is a lot of heterogeneity in rotaviruses, knowledge of the geographical distribution and temporal distribution of circulating genotypes are essential in the formulation of vaccine.[17],[18]

In the present study, children who received rotavirus vaccine were negative for rotavirus. This highlights that the rotavirus vaccine can be included in the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) which provides trustworthy safety against diarrheal disease. The efficacy of the vaccine was not assessed due to a small number of vaccines in this study.

In the current study, adenovirus was detected in two cases [Table 1]. Adenovirus also causes respiratory illness. Children tend to ingest sputum resulting in shedding of virus in stool. Hence, it is difficult to interpret adenovirus infection in children.[9]

Children with viral diarrhea do not require an antibiotic, early diagnosis will avert the misappropriate use of antibiotics. This not only reduces the cost of treatment and risk of adverse reactions, but also decreases the emergence of resistant bacteria.[19]


  Conclusion Top


The rotavirus vaccine can be included in the UIP. Although the sensitivity and specificity of RICT were reported as 75% and 95% only, it is useful to detect viral diarrhea at the point of care for effective management and containment of diarrheal outbreaks at field level.

Acknowledgment

We would like to thank Dr. Sunitha who assisted with the statistical analysis of the results.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Park K. Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 23rd ed. Jabalpur, India: M/S Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers; 2015. p. 145-361.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Bern C, Martines J, de Zoysa I, Glass RI. The magnitude of the global problem of diarrhoeal disease: A ten-year update. Bull World Health Organ 1992;70:705-14.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Black RE, Morris SS, Bryce J. Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? Lancet 2003;361:2226-34.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Wilunda C, Panza A. Factors associated with diarrhoea among children less than 5 years old in Thailand: A secondary analysis of Thailand. Multiple indicator cluster survey 2006. J Health Res 2009;23:17-22.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kosek M, Bern C, Guerrant RL. The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000. Bull World Health Organ 2003;81:197-204.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Broor S, Singh V. Viral gastroenteritis. Indian J Gastroenterol 1984;3:225-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Bon F, Fascia P, Dauvergne M, Tenenbaum D, Planson H, Petion AM, et al. Prevalence of group A rotavirus, human calicivirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus type 40 and 41 infections among children with acute gastroenteritis in dijon, france. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:3055-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kapil A. Ananthanarayan & Paniker's Textbook of Microbiology. 9th ed. Hyderabad, India: Universities Press Private Limited; 2013. p. 553-63.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Wolffs PF, Bruggeman CA, van Well GT, van Loo IH. Replacing traditional diagnostics of fecal viral pathogens by a comprehensive panel of real-time PCRs. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:1926-31.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Kok TW, Burrell CJ. Comparison of five enzyme immunoassays, electron microscopy, and latex agglutination for detection of rotavirus in fecal specimens. J Clin Microbiol 1989;27:364-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Ward RL, Knowlton DR, Pierce MJ. Efficiency of human rotavirus propagation in cell culture. J Clin Microbiol 1984;19:748-53.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Rotavirus and other viral diarrhoeas: WHO scientific working group. Bull World Health Organ 1980;58:183-98.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Brooks GF, Butel JS, Morse SA. Jawetz, Melnick & Adelberg's Medical Microbiology. 21st ed. London: Printce Hall International Ltd.; 1998. p. 460-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Estes MK, Kapikian AZ. Rotaviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields Virology. 5th ed. vol 2. London: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. p. 1917-74.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Donato CM, Ch'ng LS, Boniface KF, Crawford NW, Buttery JP, Lyon M, et al. Identification of strains of RotaTeq rotavirus vaccine in infants with gastroenteritis following routine vaccination. J Infect Dis 2012;206:377-83.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Weitzel T, Reither K, Mockenhaupt FP, Stark K, Ignatius R, Saad E, et al. Field evaluation of a rota- and adenovirus immunochromatographic assay using stool samples from children with acute diarrhea in Ghana. J Clin Microbiol 2007;45:2695-7.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Broor S, Ghosh D, Mathur P. Molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses in India. Indian J Med Res 2003;118:59-67.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Mangayarkarasi V, Prema A, Gunasekaran P, Babu BV, Kaveri K. A unique human rotavirus (non vaccine) G9P4 genotype infection in a child with gastroenteritis. Indian Pediatr 2012;49:569-71.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Kelkar SD, Bhide VS, Ranshing SS, Bedekar SS. Rapid ELISA for the diagnosis of rotavirus. Indian J Med Res 2004;119:60-5.  Back to cited text no. 19
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed531    
    Printed52    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded68    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal