|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 156-157
Segmental absence of intestinal musculature: A rare cause of intestinal obstruction in infants
Hema Basappa Bannur, Vijayalaxmi Veerbasappa Suranagi, Reshma Davanageri
Department of Pathology, JN Medical College, KLE University, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication||14-Feb-2018|
Hema Basappa Bannur
Department of Pathology, JN Medical College, KLE University, Nehru Nagar, Belgaum - 590 010, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Segmental absence of intestinal musculature (SAIM) is a rare entity of unknown cause. Presenting features vary from intestinal obstruction, necrotizing enterocolitis, volvulus, and intussusception to spontaneous intestinal perforations. In majority of the cases, SAIM is a histological diagnosis. Here, we present a case of a 1-month female baby who presented with fever, abdominal distension, and vomiting. Resected segment of intestine histologically showed focal segmental absence of the muscularis propria. To the best of our knowledge, fewer than 50 cases of SAIM have been reported in the literature so far.
Keywords: SAIM, intestinal obstruction, necrotizing enterocolitis
|How to cite this article:|
Bannur HB, Suranagi VV, Davanageri R. Segmental absence of intestinal musculature: A rare cause of intestinal obstruction in infants. J Sci Soc 2017;44:156-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Bannur HB, Suranagi VV, Davanageri R. Segmental absence of intestinal musculature: A rare cause of intestinal obstruction in infants. J Sci Soc [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 May 23];44:156-7. Available from: http://www.jscisociety.com/text.asp?2017/44/3/156/225504
| Introduction|| |
Segmental absence of intestinal musculature (SAIM), a rare disease of uncertain pathogenesis, can be congenital or acquired. The age of presentation may vary from neonates to adulthood. It may affect the stomach, small intestine, or colon. Often, it manifests as intestinal obstruction or perforation. SAIM is rarely diagnosed clinically, usually, it is a histological diagnosis where there is intact mucosa, submucosa, and serosa but segmental absence of the muscularis propria. In newborns, it resembles necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but it is distinguished from NEC by the absence of inflammation, hemorrhage, and necrosis. Treatment is resection of the involved intestinal segment.
| Case Report|| |
A 1-month female baby born to primi mother by lower segment cesarean section presented with fever, abdominal distension, and vomiting of 4 days duration. A clinical diagnosis of acute intestinal obstruction secondary to NEC was made. Peroperative adhesions were noted. A segment of small intestine was resected. We received small intestinal segment measuring 55 cm in length. Both the surgical ends appeared normal with central thinned out area. Microscopically, the thinned out are showed normal mucosa, submucosa, and serosa, but the absence of muscularis propria [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. The rest of the intestine was mildly inflamed. Hence, the diagnosis of SAIM was given.
|Figure 1: Small intestine showing absence of muscularis propria (H and E, ×100)|
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|Figure 2: Small intestine showing absence of muscularis propria (H and E, ×200)|
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| Discussion|| |
The first case of SAIM was described by Herbut in 1943., Emanuel et al. in 1967 described SAIM as a new entity causing intestinal obstruction. Majority of the cases reported are in neonates, but it can present rarely in adults also. It is classified as primary idiopathic and secondary acquired. Acquired SAIM follows vasopressor use, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory intake, or intestinal ischemia caused by hypoxia of prematurity. The exact etiology and pathogenesis area not clear. Many attribute it to focal intrauterine ischemia of the gastrointestinal tract. However, this theory cannot explain the intact mucosa, which is more vulnerable to ischemia. Huang et al. and Morikawa et al. have suggested that SAIM may be secondary to ischemic event, but because of the differences in the regenerative capacity of the mucosa and the muscle, the mucosa regenerates faster., Resection of the affected segment is curative.
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| References|| |
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2]