Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 45  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 116-118

Study of “Discard Rate” of Whole Human Blood: Useful Blood Center Quality Indicator


Department of Transfusion Medicine and Blood Center, North 24 Parganas District Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Date of Web Publication28-Jun-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Gopeswar Mukherjee
Department of Transfusion Medicine and Blood Centre, North 24 Parganas District Hospital, Jessore Road, Barasat, Kolkata - 700 124, West Bengal
India
Sandipan Ghosh
Department of Transfusion Medicine and Blood Centre, North 24 Parganas District Hospital, Jessore Road, Barasat, Kolkata - 700 124, West Bengal
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jss.JSS_8_19

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Background: Blood is a valuable, life-saving material which should not be discarded or wasted to have the required blood supply to the patients. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study is to find out the major causes of blood discard from the blood center so that preventive strategies can be undertaken by proper training of blood center personnel, awareness of blood donor motivators. Materials and Methods: In this study, the number of discarded blood units and the total number of units collected have been taken from blood center registers for each year and then the discard rate has been calculated. Results: Discard rate has been found more in this study due to transfusion transmissible infections positive cases in comparison to discard due to insufficient quantity. No discard due to other causes recorded in the Blood Centre Registers. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that proper screening of blood donors by proper medical examination and donor counseling are very important in this connection. Moreover, proper training of the blood center personnel and blood donor motivators are equally important.

Keywords: Blood center, discard rate, quality indicator, whole blood


How to cite this article:
Mukherjee G, Ghosh S, Halder S, Mondal S. Study of “Discard Rate” of Whole Human Blood: Useful Blood Center Quality Indicator. J Sci Soc 2018;45:116-8

How to cite this URL:
Mukherjee G, Ghosh S, Halder S, Mondal S. Study of “Discard Rate” of Whole Human Blood: Useful Blood Center Quality Indicator. J Sci Soc [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Dec 13];45:116-8. Available from: http://www.jscisociety.com/text.asp?2018/45/3/116/261670




  Introduction Top


Blood transfusion is an integral part of the patient management in modern medicine. The blood center collects safe blood from eligible, voluntary, nonremunerated healthy donors. The blood units are carried and stored properly following the standard norms and regulations laid down by the Government of India.[1] The American Association of Blood Banks has defined several quality indicators which are found useful for adequacy of personnel, inventory control, and process stability.[2] To overcome the demand and supply, each unit of blood is to be considered precious and should be used judiciously to avoid wastage. Blood transfusion service can develop a plan to avoid the wastage of blood through proper education and by training of the blood center staffs. This can be done properly by analyzing the data as well as reasons for blood discard and thus finally having measures to minimize the number of discarded blood to a lower rate. Every blood center should formulate the guidelines for donor selection in a proper way, proper storage, etc., to protect financial and human resources.[3]

This present study has been designed to evaluate the reasons of blood units discard as well as the steps to be taken to maintain the numbers of discard.


  Materials and Methods Top


This study was designed for 8 years among 86971 voluntary blood donors at Blood Centre of North 24 Parganas District Hospital, West Bengal, India. This is a cross-sectional retrospective study. The records from January 01, 2011, to December 31, 2018, were analyzed.

This study included the discarding of whole blood (WB) due to mainly transfusion-transmissible infections (TTI) as well as insufficient quantity (IQ).

The discard rate as a whole was calculated using the following formula:[4],[5]

(Total number of WB discarded/Total number of blood units collected) × 100

Moreover, the discard of the WB was found more due to TTI, and the discard rate for TTI-positive unit is calculated as:[4],[5]

(Total number of WB discarded due to TTI positivity/Total number of blood units collected) × 100

(The calculation of discard rate has been done based on WB as Blood Component Separation Unit is under processing and still is not available in this blood center).

The statistical analysis of data was performed using the Chi-square test.


  Results Top


Results of total unit units of blood collected for 8 years have been shown in [Table 1] and [Table 2]. Along with that, total units discarded due to TTI and IQ have also been shown.
Table 1: Causes and year-wise total discard due to transfusion transmissible infections and insufficient quantity

Click here to view
Table 2: The year-wise discard rate due to transfusion transmissible infections and insufficient quantity

Click here to view


Of total 86,971 blood units collected, IIT-positive cases were 1928 (2.22%) and were discarded following standard norms and IQ cases were 1345 (1.55%) and were discarded. Apart from these two causes, no discard was noted due to other causes such as hemolysis and lipemia. It was only WB as component separation facility is not yet available; it is on the process and will start very soon.

Of total 86,971 units of WB, total discarded units were 3273 (TTI + IQ) – it is 3.76%.

No statistical significance was found between discard rate of WB as a whole and the total number of collection (P > 0.05).


  Discussion Top


The rational use of blood is an important challenge in transfusion medicine. This challenge is not only restricted in the blood center but also require the generation of awareness and proper knowledge in the common people. Blood is precious and scarce that is why it cannot be discarded or wasted.[6],[7] This present study showed an average discard rate 3.76%.

Discard rate for WB has been found lower than the quoted rates by Sharma et al., (4.46%), Bobde et al., (6.63%), and Suresh et al. (5.70%).[3],[6],[7] Discard rate due to TTI positivity has been found comparatively more (2.21%) and those due to IQ 1.54%. It can be solved by the proper selection of the healthy donors by arranging frequent training and motivation of the blood center staffs as well as social workers such as blood donor motivators. Moreover, IQ can be prevented using properly calibrated blood collection monitor as well as spring balance so that accurate blood volume can be measured.[8]

Hence, blood discard due to reasons as observed in this study can be prevented by the above-noted measures, and it is very much essential from the public health point of view.


  Conclusion Top


Blood is a life-saving material and showed not be discarded or wasted. Properly screening of the blood donors by proper medical examination, donor counseling is very important in this connection. Blood center staffs should have periodical training in this connection. Every hospital should have blood transfusion council to monitor the rational use of blood and to have measures to avoid blood discard having immense public health importance.

In this blood center, there is mostly demand is more than supply. Continuous monitoring and proper training can improve the scenario of blood discard – thereby contributing toward the filling up of the gap between supply and demand.[9]

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to the staffs of the blood center for their co-operation and Superintendent of North 24 Parganas District Hospital, Barasat, Barasat, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, for kind permission to perform the study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Gen D. Health services. In: Transfusion Medicine: Technical Manual. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Government of India; 2003. p. 8-22.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Harmening DM. Modern Blood Banking and Transfusion Practices. 5th ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers; 2005. p. 359-67.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Suresh B, Sreedhar Babu KR, Arun R, Chandramouli P, Jyothibai DS. Reasons for discarding whole blood and its components in a tertiary care hospital blood bank in South India. J Clin Sci Res 2015;4:213-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
  [Full text]  
4.
Patil P, Bhake A, Hiwala K. Analysis of discard of whole blood and its components with suggested possible strategies to reduce it. Int J Res Med Sci 2016;4:477-80.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kanani AN, Vachhani JH, Dholakiya SK, Upadhyay SB. Analysis on discard of blood and its products With suggested possible strategies to reduce its occurance in a blood bank of tertiary care hospital in Western India. Glob J Transfus Med 2017;2:130-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
  [Full text]  
6.
Sharma N, Kaushik S, Kumar R. Causes of wastage of blood and blood components: A retrospective study. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2015;13:59-61.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Bobde V, Parasi S, Kumbhalkar D. Analysis of discard of whole blood and blood components in government hospital blood bank in central India. J Evid Based Med Health 2015;2:1215-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Devi KH, Sharma AB, Singh LD, Vijayanta K, Singh KM. Quality indicators of blood utilization in a tertiary care centre in the North-Eastern India. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2014;13:50-2.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Debroy A, Pal A. Evalution of 'wastage rate' blood and components – An important quality indicator in blood banks. Br J Med Med Res 2015;8:348-52.  Back to cited text no. 9
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed785    
    Printed95    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded116    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal