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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 47  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 57-58

Coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak: Targeting preparedness, readiness, and risk response attributes globally


1 Member of the Medical Education Unit and Institute Research Council, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpaet, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpaet, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission10-Mar-2020
Date of Acceptance19-May-2020
Date of Web Publication23-Jun-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) – Deemed to be University, Tiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpaet District - 603 108, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jss.JSS_16_20

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  Abstract 


The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, which started from a single city in China has been detected in 104 nations and territories. However, based on the epidemiological results obtained from the action response plan in China and some other nations, definite evidence is available to suggest that the risk of transmission can be effectively interrupted using non-pharmacological interventions. The need of the hour is to be ready with the emergency response teams, enhance the capacity of the health system to improve detection and care facilities, improve the human resource-logistics-infrastructure, and facilitate research activities for the development of drugs/vaccines. In conclusion, in the global battle against the COVID-19 outbreak, only our preparedness, readiness and response plan will be our biggest weapons and thus we have to improve ourselves in all the dimensions and mount a well-coordinated response.

Keywords: COVID-19 outbreak, preparedness, world health organization


How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak: Targeting preparedness, readiness, and risk response attributes globally. J Sci Soc 2020;47:57-8

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak: Targeting preparedness, readiness, and risk response attributes globally. J Sci Soc [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Jul 15];47:57-8. Available from: http://www.jscisociety.com/text.asp?2020/47/1/57/287481




  Introduction Top


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, which started from a single city in China, has been detected in 104 nations and territories.[1] In fact, since the start of the outbreak, a total of 109,577 cases have been reported, of which 28,673 are being reported in other affected nations. At the same time, the novel infection has accounted for 3809 deaths, which amounts to a case fatality rate of 3.5%, which is gradually on the rise.[1] Keeping all these recent developments in mind, the threat of the first infectious disease being declared as a pandemic is very much imminent.[2] However, one of the important encouraging signs has been that the number of cases has significantly declined in China, with only 45 cases being reported within 24 h because of the coordinated and accelerated response of the public health authorities.[1] On the contrary, the number of cases in the rest of the world has shown a remarkable rise, with 3948 being reported in the same time interval.[1]

Need to improve preparedness

Moreover, based on the epidemiological results obtained from the action response plan in China and some other nations, definite evidence is available to suggest that the risk of transmission can be effectively interrupted using nonpharmacological interventions.[2],[3] The need of the hour is to be ready with the emergency response teams, enhance the capacity of the health system to improve detection and care facilities, improve the human resource–logistics–infrastructure, and facilitate research activities for the development of drugs/vaccines.[3],[4] At the same time, it is extremely important to improve our level of preparedness and also implement those strategies, which reduces the caseload on the health system and keep it manageable, before they become overwhelmed.[2],[3],[4],[5] All these interventions will help us to minimize the impact of epidemics on health systems, financial consequences, and social security.[2],[3],[4],[5]

Adoption of a customized approach

Before we move ahead, it is good to understand that based on the detection of cases, all the nations are categorized as nations with no cases, nations with one or more cases, nations with clusters of cases, and nations which are experiencing massive disease outbreaks due to the local transmission of the disease.[3] Based on the category to which a nation belongs, specific interventions have been recommended to improve the preparedness, readiness, and response of the nation and the health-care delivery system.[3] Regardless of the category to which a nation belongs, the ultimate universal aim is to stop the disease transmission and prevent the spread of the infection. This will essentially require activation of the emergency response mechanism, so that we are ready with our resources and strategies to respond to the infection.[4],[5]

Other interventions

Further, a comprehensive and trustworthy risk communication and community engagement system should be developed to ensure timely education of the general population about the do's and don'ts and what all people can do to prevent the further transmission of the infection.[5] The nations with reported cases should implement active case finding, contact tracing, quarantine of contacts, and isolation of the cases.[3] Further, based on the magnitude of the caseload, the nations should not only consider, but even explore options of implementation and expansion of surveillance.[4] The public health strategies (such as hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, and social distancing) have been universally envisaged. With regard to diagnosis, only suspect cases and contacts of confirmed patients are subjected to laboratory testing.[2],[3],[4]

The patients should be treated based on the caseload and triage plan should be activated in nations with cluster of cases and those with reports of local transmission.[3] The health personnel should be trained about different aspects of infection prevention and control and empowered effectively to ensure that they do not act as a source for the onward disease transmission.[3] Home-based care is advocated only in those settings wherein health facilities are overwhelmed.[5] Further, steps have to be taken to improve the resilience of the society and community involvement in all the nations.[2],[4],[5] Even though these recommendations have been made, it is important to acknowledge that they might change once we come across deeper insights about the epidemiological and clinical spectrum of the infection.[3]


  Conclusion Top


In conclusion, in the global battle against the COVID-19 outbreak, only our preparedness, readiness, and response plan will be our biggest weapons and thus we have to improve ourselves in all the dimensions and mount a well-coordinated response.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 49. World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200309-sitrep-49-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=70dabe61_4. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 10].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Cohen J, Kupferschmidt K. Strategies shift as coronavirus pandemic looms. Science 2020;367:962-3.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
World Health Organization. Critical Preparedness, Readiness and Response Actions for COVID-19 – Interim Guidance. Geneva: World Health Organization Press; 2020. p. 1-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Watts CH, Vallance P, Whitty CJ. Coronavirus: Global solutions to prevent a pandemic. Nature 2020;578:363.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
World Health Organization. 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan. Geneva: World Health Organization Press; 2020. p. 1-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
    




 

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