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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 41  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 220-226

Blood component therapy in anesthesia and intensive care: Adoption of evidence based approaches

1 Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Gian Sagar Medical College and Hospital, Ram Nagar, Banur, Punjab, India
2 Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector-32, Chandigarh, India

Date of Web Publication19-Sep-2014

Correspondence Address:
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa
House No. 27-A, Ratan Nagar, Tripuri, Patiala, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-5009.141253

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Transfusion of blood and its components has undergone technological advancement, and its use is increasing both perioperatively as well as in the Intensive Care Unit. The separation of blood into its various components has made it very economical as blood donated from a single donor can be utilized for many recipients at the same time. However, the transfusion of blood and its components do carry the inherent risk of various transfusion reactions as well as transmission of infections. The indications for transfusion should be strictly adhered to for preventing nonjudicious use. The health care persons involved in transfusion should be well aware of implications of the mismatched transfusion and should be able to provide treatment if such mishaps do occur. A health care professional should carefully weigh the benefits of blood transfusion against the risks involved before subjecting the patients to the transfusion. This manuscript aims to comprehensively review the current evidence based approaches in blood and component transfusion which are being followed in anesthesiology and intensive care practice.

Keywords: Blood transfusion, guidelines, indications, transfusion reactions

How to cite this article:
Bajwa SS, Kulshrestha A. Blood component therapy in anesthesia and intensive care: Adoption of evidence based approaches. J Sci Soc 2014;41:220-6

How to cite this URL:
Bajwa SS, Kulshrestha A. Blood component therapy in anesthesia and intensive care: Adoption of evidence based approaches. J Sci Soc [serial online] 2014 [cited 2021 Jan 18];41:220-6. Available from: https://www.jscisociety.com/text.asp?2014/41/3/220/141253

  Introduction Top

With the technological advances in transfusion medicine involving separation of blood components, transfusion of blood components has increased tremendously especially in critically ill patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). In modern day clinical practice, the clinicians can choose from a range of blood products depending on the requirement of specific patients. Admission pattern in ICU is highly variable with patients getting referred from all specialties which may include wide demographic variation in admission pattern ranging from neonates to geriatric age group, from surgical to medical specialties; hence it is emphasized that the intensivist be aware of different pathologies and their different requirements in the context to blood and its components therapy [Figure 1].
Figure 1: The process of separation of whole blood into its various components

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According to the report of Serious Hazards of Transfusion in UK in 2009, it was found that total number of blood components issued was close to 3 million. The blood requirement in Southeast Asian region is about 15 million units annually. The major indications for transfusion being: Trauma, shock, septicemia, emergency obstetric care, vascular surgery, hemodialysis, pediatric and hematological emergencies.

The new evidence based recommendations dictate that blood should be transfused only when required to save a life and not just to treat lab values.

  Blood and its components Top

The whole blood constitutes about 8% of human body weight. Primarily, the indications for blood transfusion based on evidence based recommendations can be summed as. [1]

Indications for whole blood transfusions (evidence based recommendations)

  • Patients developing hypovolemia due to massive blood loss.
  • Massive trauma.
  • Obstetrical emergencies.
  • Also during exchange transfusion.

An urgent transfusion is recommended if the loss is more than 40% of the blood volume while in case of blood loss between 30% and 40% of the blood volume presence of signs of inadequate perfusion mandates blood transfusion. The blood transfusion is rarely needed if the blood loss is around 15-30%.

  Packed red blood cells Top

These are prepared by centrifugation of whole blood from which supernatant (platelet rich plasma) is removed. The clinical characteristics per unit packed red blood cell (PRBC) are:

  1. Hematocrit of about 55-75%.
  2. hemoglobin (Hb) of ~20 g/dL.
  3. Volume ~150-200 ml.
  4. Stored at 2-6°C.
  5. Average shelf-life is 21-42 days.
  6. Should be transfused within 4 h of rewarming to body temperature.

Majority of the patients in ICU with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, septic shock and multiple traumas tend to develop anemia during a prolonged stay in ICU. It is recommended that in absence of cardiac dysfunction or critical coronary artery disease, a Hb concentration of 7-8 g/dL is considered to be safe for adequately meeting the oxygen needs of the body. [2]

Evidence based recommendations for packed red blood cell transfusions

  • In hospitalized patients, PRBC transfusion is required if the Hb level is <7 g/dL and the transfusion can be given in patients with coronary artery disease, chronic renal failure, congestive heart failure etc., even if the Hb is more than 7 g/dL. [1]
  • In peri-operative period, if Hb concentration is <7 g/dL, RBC transfusion is usually required. If Hb concentration is between 7 and 10 g/dL, RBC transfusion may be appropriate if any of the following are present, that is, organ ischemia, increased potential for or ongoing blood loss, volume status and risk factors for complications of inadequate oxygenation. If Hb concentration is more than 10 g/dL then RBC transfusion is usually unnecessary. [3]
  • In cases of bone marrow failure, transfusion is required even if Hb is more than 7 g/dL as a regular predetermined therapeutic program. [4],[5]
  • In cases of symptomatic anemia with normal blood volume.

  Plasma Top

Whole plasma is rarely used as such and its use primarily for volume resuscitation and for intravenous (IV) nutrition (protein build up) should not be encouraged.

  Fresh frozen plasma Top

It is obtained by separating the liquid portion of blood from the cells and rapidly freezing it. The clinical characteristics per unit of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) are:

  1. Contains stable clotting factors, immunoglobulins (Igs) and albumin.
  2. Volume is about 200-300 ml/unit.
  3. Frozen within6 h to -25°C to maintain the coagulation factors.
  4. Can be stored at −25°C for up to 1 year.
  5. Thawed at 30-37°C before transfusing.
  6. Transfusion should be started within 6 h of thawing.

The transfusion practice of FFP remains high with more than 0.5 million units ordered in United Kingdom annually.

Evidence based recommendations for fresh frozen plasma transfusion

  1. Active bleeding with documented coagulopathy (international normalized ratio INR >2 or prothrombin time (PT) >1.5 or activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) twice the normal). [4],[5],[6],[7]
  2. Liver disease with coagulopathy.
  3. Emergent reversal of warfarin effect. [8],[9]
  4. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC).
  5. Dilutional coagulopathy due to infusion of large volumes of transfusion.
  6. Replacement of single factor deficiencies (factor XI, V deficiency).
  7. Prophylaxis in patients undergoing surgery or invasive procedure with coagulopathy. [10]

The amount of FFP to be transfused is considered to be about 10-15 ml/kg. The target INR should be <1.7 or PT should be <1.5 or APTT should be less than twice the normal.

  Platelets Top

The clinical characteristics of pooled platelet concentrate are:

  1. Pooled platelet concentrates contain 240 × 10 9 platelets (4-6 pooled units).
  2. Single donor plasmapheresis (most commonly recommended for transfusion) contains at least 55 × 10 9 platelets.
  3. Stored at 20-24°C with constant agitation for up to 5 days.
  4. Should be infused within 4 h of collection to avoid contamination.
  5. Total transfusion time should not exceed 30 min.

Evidence based recommendations for platelet transfusion

  1. Active bleeding and platelet count <50,000/μl. [11],[12],[13],[14],[15]
  2. Active bleeding and platelet function defect. [11],[12],[13],[14],[15]
  3. Hematology patients with active bleeding: autoimmune platelet disorders, dengue, malaria, kalaazar.
  4. Oncology patients with: [16],[17]
    • Platelet count <10,000/μl in stable patients.
    • Platelet count <20,000/μl in the presence of risk factors.
  5. Surgical or invasive procedures with:
    • Platelet count <50,000/μl for procedures with minimal bleeding risk.
    • Platelet count <100,000/μl for central nervous system, ophthalmological surgery where microvascular Bleeding is hazardous.
  6. Massive blood transfusion, that is, replacement of whole blood volume within 24 h. [18]
  7. Postcardiopulmonary bypass with uncontrolled bleeding. [19]

The transfusion of 1-2 single donor platelets units is usually adequate to control bleeding (raises count by 20,000-40,000/μl) along with the use of other adjuvants like desmopressin and tranexamic acid, which can also be helpful.

  Cryoprecipitate Top

It is the fraction of plasma that remains undissolved after controlled thawing of FFP at 4°C. The clinical characteristics of cryoprecipitate are:

  1. Rich in fibrinogen (150-300 mg/pack), factor VIII (80-100 IU/pack), vonwillibrand factor and fibronectin.
  2. Resuspended in 10-20 ml plasma.
  3. Supplied in pack of 6 or more.
  4. Can be stored at −25°C for up to 1 year.
  5. Should be infused within 6 h of thawing.

Evidence based recommendations for cryoprecipitate transfusion

  1. Fibrinogen levels <80-100 mg/dL with bleeding. [20],[21],[22]
  2. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. [20],[21],[22]
  3. Liver disease. [20],[21],[22]
  4. Massive transfusion. [20],[21],[22]
  5. Factor XIII deficiency. [20],[21],[22]

The amount of cryoprecipitate recommended for transfusion is 1 unit per 7-10 kg of body weight (5-10 units in an adult) which is considered to be sufficient to control bleeding.

  Factor concentrates Top

High cost and difficulty in procuring these products have not popularized individual factor concentrates. Factor concentrates are generally required in hemophiliacs. The incidence of hemophilia is approximately 1 in 5000 males. It has been estimated that in India alone, about 1300 children with hemophilia are born each year, and there are nearly 50,000 patients with severe hemophilia A requiring factor transfusion. [23],[24],[25],[26],[ 27]

Classification and clinical utility of factor concentrates

Recombinant or plasma-derived factor VIII

This is recommended in moderate to severe factor VIII deficiency (hemophilia A) and mild factor VIII deficiency unresponsive to desmopressin.

Recombinant or plasma-derived factor IX

It is recommended in patients with factor IX deficiency (hemophilia B).

Activated prothrombin complex concentrates

It is recommended for bleeding episodes or surgical procedures in patients with hemophilia A or B where individual components not available and in nonhemophiliac patients with acquired inhibitors to coagulation factors.

Prothrombin complex concentrate

It is recommended for urgent reversal of warfarin in life-threatening bleeding conditions and in deficiency of other vitamin K-dependent factors in settings where no other concentrate is available (factor X and factor II deficiency).

  Other Infrequently/Rarely Used Specific Blood Products Top

Leukocyte-reduced or depleted blood products (red blood cells, platelets)

These are prepared by a single upright sedimentation of saline-diluted, 6-10 days old RBC's. These should contain <5 × 10 6 leukocytes. A leukocyte filter may also be used if leukocyte depleted cells are not available. [28],[29],[30]

Evidence based recommendations for transfusions are

  • Prevention of febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions.
  • Prevention of allow-immunization to human leukocyte antigen.
  • Prevention of cytomegalovirus infections in patients at risk for CMV transfusion.

Washed red blood cells or platelet

These are produced by washing packed RBCs with 1-2 L of normal saline. The washed units contain 10-20% less RBCs than the original units and have a short half-life of 24 h.

Evidence based recommendations for transfusion is

  1. History of anaphylactic reaction to blood components
  2. Immunoglobulin (IgA) deficiency with documented IgA antibody.
  3. Recurrent severe or allergic reactions not prevented with appropriate premedication.
  4. Severe hyperkalemia (e.g., neonates, renal failure).

Irradiated blood products

These are indicated for the prevention of transfusion-associated graft versus host disease. These are prepared from plasma of many donors pooled before freeze drying.

  Granulocytes Top

These are collected from granulocyte-colony stimulating factor stimulated donors consisting of five daily collections. Each unit contains 3-4 × 10 10 granulocytes. These should be irradiated before use. The common indications are severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <500/μl) with reversible marrow hypoplasia and documented bacterial or fungal infection unresponsive to 48 h of appropriate antibiotic therapy and in patients with severe neutrophil dysfunction and bacterial or fungal infection.

Although transfusion can be a life-saving therapy, it is nearly impossible to provide zero transfusion related risk. The benefits of the transfusion should be carefully weighed against the associated risks.

Perioperative blood transfusion management

The perioperative management of transfusion of blood and components is essential for reducing the risk of adverse events associated with transfusion and for adequate utilization of resources. It involves.

Preanesthetic evaluation

The main aim is to identify the patients with an increased likelihood of intraoperative transfusion. These include patients with cardiorespiratory diseases with risk of organ ischemia, coagulopathy, and previous history of drug therapy that is known to affect different aspects of blood hemostasis.

Intraoperative and postoperative management of blood loss

The decision for intraoperative transfusion should be based on monitoring of blood loss by visual inspection of the surgical field and quantitative measurement of suction and surgical sponges, by monitoring vital organ perfusion using the vital signs monitoring and weighing the risks and benefits of transfusion based on the presence of risk factors for the development of organ ischemia.

Another important consideration in the perioperative transfusion management is monitoring and treatment of transfusion related adverse events that range from bacterial contamination to acute lung injury and transfusion related adverse reactions. The management of these transfusion reactions is dealt subsequently. [31]

Precautions for transfusion

The following precautions should be taken for transfusion of blood and components:

  1. Blood should be administered within 30 min of issue from the blood bank.
  2. Unused blood from the theatre or wards should be returned immediately (within 30 min) to the blood bank.
  3. Always check for ABO and Rh compatibility.
  4. Never add medications to blood units.
  5. Change the blood sets at least 12 hourly.
  6. Complete transfusions in recommended time.
  7. Do not transfuse a blood bag which appears discolored, has signs of leakage or appears abnormal or damaged.
  8. Use infusion sets with appropriate filter size.
  9. Transfuse under supervision of the clinician.
  10. The final administration check must be conducted next to the patient by a trained and competent healthcare professional doctor/nurse.
  11. All patients are receiving a transfusion must be properly identified.
  12. All patient identifiers must match the details on the blood component label.
  13. Observations should be undertaken for every unit transfused.

All the patients are undergoing transfusion should be monitored at regular intervals by competent health care personnel for the development of any transfusion related adverse effects. The vital parameters monitored should be the pulse, blood pressure, temperature and respiratory rate. The patients should be educated to report any adverse effects both during and after the transfusion. [32]

Recommendations during transfusion reaction

In case an adverse reaction occurs it is recommended urgently to:

  1. Stop the transfusion.
  2. Keep the IV line patent with normal saline.
  3. Monitor the vital signs of the patient.
  4. Inform the laboratory about a possible transfusion reaction.
  5. Check again the clerical information to ensure that the patient is receiving the correct blood.

  Types of adverse reaction to blood products Top

0Acute reaction

These are further divided into three categories depending on the severity of reaction. [33]

Category 1

It includes localized cutaneous reactions like urticarial, rash, pruritis etc., and is mainly due to mild hypersensitivity.

Category 2

It includes moderately severe reactions like flushing, urticaria, rigors, fever, restlessness, tachycardia, palpitations, pruritis, headache and mild dyspnea. The possible causes are hypersensitivity, febrile nonhemolytic reactions due to antibodies to leucocytes and platelets and possible contamination with pyrogens and/or bacteria.

Category 3

It includes life-threatening reactions like fever, rigors, restlessness, hypotension, tachycardia, hemoglobinuria, unexplained bleeding, chest pain, respiratory distress, loin/back pain and headache. The possible causes are:

  1. Acute intravascular hemolysis.
  2. Bacterial contamination and septic shock.
  3. Fluid overload.
  4. Anaphylaxis.
  5. Transfusion related acute lung injury.

Delayed reaction

  1. Delayed hemolytic reaction.
  2. Posttransfusion purpura.
  3. Graft versus host reaction.
  4. Iron overload.
  5. Transmission of infections.

Management of transfusion related reaction

Two blood samples should be taken from the patient, one 10 ml blood sample should be taken from the opposite arm and the plasma should be checked for evidence of hemolysis. Another 2 ml sample should be taken and labeled correctly and should be sent to the laboratory for recrossmatching along with the blood bag with the blood set attached to it. This should be accompanied with the blood requisition form duly filled in indicating that the reaction has occurred. The hospital transfusion committee should also be informed about the reaction. The other steps to be taken depend upon the type of transfusion reaction and are depicted in [Table 1]. [34],[35]
Table 1: Management of blood transfusion reactions

Click here to view

  Conclusion Top

Transfusion of blood and components can be life-saving in some situations but also carries the risk of the various transfusion related reactions as well as transmission of infective diseases. The transfusion should always be performed by competent health care personnel with constant monitoring using the recommendations mentioned. The indications of blood and its components should be strictly adhered to and the transfusion should not occur merely to correct laboratory abnormalities. The decision to transfuse should take into account the clinical scenario of the patient. The protocols for safe transfusion practice should be institutionalized based on the local transfusion practices. In the end, all the health care personals involved in the transfusion practice should be educated about the recognition of the various transfusion related adverse-effects and their prompt management.

  References Top

1.Carless PA, Henry DA, Carson JL, Hebert PP, McClelland B, Ker K. Transfusion Thresholds and Other Strategies for Guiding Red Blood Cell Transfusion (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Oct 6;(10):CD002042.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Wang JK, Klein HG. Red blood cell transfusion in the treatment and management of anaemia: The search for the elusive transfusion trigger. Vox Sang 2010;98:2-11.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Society of Thoracic Surgeons Blood Conservation Guideline Task Force, Ferraris VA, Brown JR, Despotis GJ, Hammon JW, Reece TB, et al. 2011 update to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists blood conservation clinical practice guidelines. Ann Thorac Surg 2011;91:944-82.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Use of Blood Components. Appropriate Use of Fresh Frozen Plasma and Cryoprecipitate. NHMRC and Australian Society of Blood Transfusion; August, 2010.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Guidelines for the Administration of Plasma. 2 nd ed. New York State Council on Human Blood and Transfusion Services; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.O'Shaughnessy DF, Atterbury C, Bolton Maggs P, Murphy M, Thomas D, Yates S, et al. Guidelines for the use of fresh-frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate and cryosupernatant. Br J Haematol 2004;126:11-28.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Holland LL, Brooks JP. Toward rational fresh frozen plasma transfusion: The effect of plasma transfusion on coagulation test results. Am J Clin Pathol 2006;126:133-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Segal JB, Dzik WH, Transfusion Medicine/Hemostasis Clinical Trials Network. Paucity of studies to support that abnormal coagulation test results predict bleeding in the setting of invasive procedures: An evidence-based review. Transfusion 2005;45:1413-25.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Hirsh J, Fuster V, Ansell J, Halperin JL, American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology Foundation. American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation guide to warfarin therapy. Circulation 2003;107:1692-711.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.Holland L, Sarode R. Should plasma be transfused prophylactically before invasive procedures? Curr Opin Hematol 2006;13:447-51.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Slichter SJ, Kaufman RM, Assmann SF, McCullough J, Triulzi DJ, Strauss RG, et al. Dose of prophylactic platelet transfusions and prevention of hemorrhage. N Engl J Med 2010;362:600-13.  Back to cited text no. 11
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14.Stroncek DF, Rebulla P. Transfusion medicine 2: Platelet transfusions. Lancet 2007;370:427-38.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.British Committee for Standards in Haematology, Blood Transfusion Task Force. Guidelines for the use of platelet transfusions. Br J Haematol 2003;122:10-23.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Rebulla P, Finazzi G, Marangoni F, Avvisati G, Gugliotta L, Tognoni G, et al. The threshold for prophylactic platelet transfusions in adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche Maligne dell'Adulto. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1870-5.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Schiffer CA, Anderson KC, Bennett CL, Bernstein S, Elting LS, Goldsmith M, et al. Platelet transfusion for patients with cancer: Clinical practice guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:1519-38.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Rossaint R, Bouillon B, Cerny V, Coats TJ, Duranteau J, Fernández-Mondéjar E, et al. Management of bleeding following major trauma: An updated European guideline. Crit Care 2010;14:R52.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Tanaka KA, Szlam F, Kelly AB, Vega JD, Levy JH. Clopidogrel (Plavix) and cardiac surgical patients: Implications for platelet function monitoring and postoperative bleeding. Platelets 2004;15:325-32.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Callum JL, Karkouti K, Lin Y. Cryoprecipitate: the current state of knowledge. Transfus Med Rev 2009;23:177-88.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Guidelines for Administration of Cryoprecipitate. New York State Council on Human Blood & Transfusion Services. Available from: http://www.wadsworth.org. [Last accessed on 2007 Jun 26].  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Use of Blood Components. NHMRC & Australian Society of Blood Transfusion; September, 2001.  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Karkouti K, Beattie WS, Crowther MA, Callum JL, Chun R, Fremes SE, et al. The role of recombinant factor VIIa in on-pump cardiac surgery: Proceedings of the Canadian Consensus Conference. Can J Anaesth 2007;54:573-82.  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Morgenstern LB, Hemphill JC 3 rd , Anderson C, Becker K, Broderick JP, Connolly ES Jr, et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: A guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2010;41:2108-29.  Back to cited text no. 24
25.Beshay JE, Morgan H, Madden C, Yu W, Sarode R. Emergency reversal of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapies in neurosurgical patients. J Neurosurg 2010;112:307-18.  Back to cited text no. 25
26.Lankiewicz MW, Hays J, Friedman KD, Tinkoff G, Blatt PM. Urgent reversal of warfarin with prothrombin complex concentrate. J Thromb Haemost 2006;4:967-70.  Back to cited text no. 26
27.Medical Scientific Advisory Council of National Hemophilia Foundation Recommendation #177. Recommendations Concerning the Treatment of Hemophilia & Other Bleeding Disorders. Revised, October 2006.  Back to cited text no. 27
28.CMV Seronegative vs. leukodepleted blood components for at risk recipients. Joint UKBTS/NIBSC Professional Advisory Committee; November, 2008.  Back to cited text no. 28
29.Bowden RA, Slichter SJ, Sayers M, Weisdorf D, Cays M, Schoch G, et al. A comparison of filtered leukocyte-reduced and cytomegalovirus (CMV) seronegative blood products for the prevention of transfusion-associated CMV infection after marrow transplant. Blood 1995;86:3598-603.  Back to cited text no. 29
30.Guidelines on the use of irradiated blood components - BCSH Blood Transfusion Task Force 2010. Available from: http://www.bcshguidelines.com.Last accessed on 5 th January, 2014.  Back to cited text no. 30
31.American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Perioperative Blood Transfusion and Adjuvant Therapies. Practice guidelines for perioperative blood transfusion and adjuvant therapies: An updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Perioperative Blood Transfusion and Adjuvant Therapies. Anesthesiology 2006;105:198-208.  Back to cited text no. 31
32.Squires JE. Risks of transfusion. South Med J 2011;104:762-9.  Back to cited text no. 32
33.Capon SM, Goldfinger D. Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction, a paradigm of the systemic inflammatory response: New insights into pathophysiology and treatment. Transfusion 1995;35:513-20.  Back to cited text no. 33
34.Ezidiegwu CN, Lauenstein KJ, Rosales LG, Kelly KC, Henry JB. Febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions. Management by premedication and cost implications in adult patients. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2004;128:991-5.   Back to cited text no. 34
35.Tinegate H, Birchall J, Gray A, Haggas R, Massey E, Norfolk D, et al. Guideline on the investigation and management of acute transfusion reactions. Prepared by the BCSH Blood Transfusion Task Force. Br J Haematol 2012;159:143-53.  Back to cited text no. 35


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