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EDITORIAL
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 47  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 139-140

Significance of tissue banking in biomedical research


1 Division of Urologic.Oncology, Urinary Biomarkers Research Centre, KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belagavi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Urology, JN Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, JNMC Campus, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission26-Dec-2020
Date of Acceptance27-Dec-2020
Date of Web Publication21-Jan-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rajendra B Nerli
Department of Urology, JN Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, JNMC Campus, Belagavi - 590 010, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jss.JSS_126_20

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How to cite this article:
Ghagane SC, Nerli RB. Significance of tissue banking in biomedical research. J Sci Soc 2020;47:139-40

How to cite this URL:
Ghagane SC, Nerli RB. Significance of tissue banking in biomedical research. J Sci Soc [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Apr 20];47:139-40. Available from: https://www.jscisociety.com/text.asp?2020/47/3/139/307594



Normal and diseased tissues comprise enormous information with regard to differentiation, morphogenesis, as well as normal and abnormal functions.[1] Even simple morphology based on routinely stained tissue sections is extremely valuable not only in the assessment of diagnosis, etiology, and prognosis of disease processes but also in basic research. Modern molecular biotechnology further enhances the practical and scientific harvest. Nucleic acids can be isolated from the tissue; its encoded complex information was analyzed using high-throughput assays and related to structure and function by immunohistochemically demonstrating gene products.[2] Moreover, experimental reproduction of genetic alterations in animals and in tissue culture cells provides the opportunity to further explore basic principles underlying normal and diseased function.[3] Tissue banking with collections of normal and abnormal frozen and fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues supplemented with blood samples, other body fluids, and even cultured cells derived from various tissues and related clinical data play an increasingly important role in clinically oriented research.

The first specimen tissue banking started as university-based repositories for specific research projects. They were established by researchers with access to patient populations who took advantage of the availability of “left-over” aliquots to be stored for immediate or future use.[4] Samples were stored in one or a few freezers, and associated data were recorded in a laboratory notebook or basic database. Although these small collections lack the big data (omics), standard operative procedures, and automated sample processing, they could be seen as the initial phase of the evolutionary process of human tissue banking.[5]

Over the past several decades, tissue banking has evolved gradually and gained tremendous improvements in the collection and storage of human samples, allowing the worldwide scientific community to obtain very important results in the field of biomedical research. Tissue banking involves the collection and storage of patient tissue samples for future biomedical research.[6] Banking of human tissue is an important tool for advancing translational research, allowing the study of genes, RNAs, and proteins to explore the biological mechanisms that underpin disease etiology and biology and the development of novel treatments.[7] In cancer, tissue banking and the research that follows have capacity to facilitate more personalized therapies, with greater likelihood of benefit and fewer adverse effects. Patients diagnosed with cancer may be more likely to experience some degree of benefit from tissue banking, and can provide tissues of interest to translational biomedical research. Today, we can collect, store, and preserve tissues, cells, nucleic acids, proteins, and other subcellular components on a long-term basis.[4],[5] Human tissue banking is of particular importance for the implementation of novel biomarkers into clinical trials, as well as for the application of a wide range of new technologies (”omics”) to the discovery and validation of new, molecular patterns of disease.[6]

Biomedical research has advanced and enabled the realization of precision medicine that relied heavily on the biospecimens provided by tissue banking to identify the targets and biomarkers that are the focus of the new generation of more effective molecular-based therapies for specific subtypes of diseases.[5],[6],[7] Through the biospecimens they have distributed, tissue banking has permitted subtypes of cancers to be identified and molecular features of these subtypes to be effectively targeted. In the future, the use of biospecimens from tissue banking will continue to increase the understanding of the molecular actions of drugs and how drugs may be more or less active in subpopulations of patients.[6]

Human tissue banking has an increasingly visible and important role within industrial enterprises in supporting biomedical research, including the rapidly advancing fields of proteomics, pharmacogenomics, and molecular epidemiology.[7] The role of academic institutions and hospitals should have greater involvement to encourage research tissue banking to enhance the scientific utility of tissue banking. Tissue banking is important in promoting a variety of scientific objectives, including discovery and development programs. Full use of this resource requires good histopathological science and close cooperation and good communication with investigators. Pathologists are well positioned to provide scientific leadership, especially with respect to specimen quality and evaluation, and thereby maximize the scientific benefit of tissue banking.



 
  References Top

1.
Denk H. Tissue banking: Its significance in modern medicine. Pathobiology 2007;74:197.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Bevilacqua G, Bosman F, Dassesse T, Hofler H, Janin A, Langer R, et al. The role of the pathologist in tissue banking: European consensus expert group report. Virchows Arch 2010;456:449-454.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Peter W. The importance of tumor banking: Bridging no-mans-land in cancer research. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2002;2:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Al Diffalha S, Sexton KC, Watson PH, Grizzle WE. The importance of human tissue bior?esources in advancing biomedical research. Biopreserv Biobank 2019;17:209-12.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
McDonald SA. Principles of research tissue banking and specimen evaluation from the pathologist's perspective. Biopreserv Biobank 2010;8:197-201.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Bryant J, Sanson-Fisher R, Fradgley E, Regan T, Hobden B, Ackland SP. Oncology patients overwhelmingly support tissue banking. BMC Cancer 2015;15:413.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Coppola L, Cianflone A, Grimaldi AM, Incoronato M, Bevilacqua P, Messina F, et al. Biobanking in health care: Evolution and future directions. J Transl Med 2019;17:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    




 

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