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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 47  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 153-157

Human herpesvirus-8 latent nuclear antigen-1 expression in kaposi's sarcoma cases as seen in Nnewi, Anambra State: (A 10-year retrospective study)

1 Department of Anatomic Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Awka, Anambra, Nigeria
2 Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complexes, Ile-Ife, Osun, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Felix Emeka Menkiti
Department of Anatomic Pathology and Forensic Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, PMB 5025, Awka, Anambra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jss.JSS_46_19

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Background: Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is a recognized major causative agent of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Latent nuclear antigen-1 (LNA-1) is constitutively expressed in all HHV-8-infected cells. The index study emphasizes the role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of KS in Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. After thorough searches in Google Scholar and PubMed, we discovered that our study is the first to employ HHV-8 LNA-1 immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of KS in Nigeria and other parts of Africa. Materials and Methods: It is a 10-year retrospective analysis of all histopathologically diagnosed KS cases from the archives of both Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital and Pathocon Specialist Clinic and Research Institute Nnewi. Pathology report forms of all KS cases and their blocks were retrieved and recut, and the recut slides were reviewed to confirm the cases. Of the 69 cases of KS retrieved, only 58 that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed using HHV-8 LNA-1 immunohistochemical stains. Results: Of these 58 cases, 20.7' were KS mimickers misdiagnosed as KS while 79.3' were true KS. Confirmed or HHV-8 LNA-1-positive KS cases accounted for 1.3' of all solid malignancies and 15.7' of all sarcomas, with majority presenting as cutaneous lesions mainly involving the lower limb (52.2') and predominantly (69.6') in nodular stage. Conclusion: HHV-8 LNA-1 is an important immunohistochemical marker in confirming diagnosis of KS.

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